The following is for Blender 2.79
The default way to move your pivot to a point in Blender it seems like(based off of my initial analysis anyways) is by first going into edit mode and then selecting a component(face, vert, etc.). Once selected press shift + s. This will bring up a list of options - select the “cursor to selected” option. The 3D cursor will jump to the centre point of that component. Next go back to object mode(tab) and click on the “Set Origin” drop down under the edit menu in the tools tab(or use the shortcut(shift + control + alt + c) and then select “Origin to 3D Cursor”.
The most efficient way it seems to do this however is by downloading an add-on called “Quick Origin”(find it here - https://bit.ly/2Xns9H6). This add-on makes it so once in edit mode you can set the pivot of your object to a point/vert with the click of a button. You just have to select the vert and then click a button. This in my opinion is still slower then how you would do it in Maya; through two shortcuts - d and v to snap it to a point. However it’s still much faster then the default way so I’ll take it!